Objective to examine the association between an overall maternal healthy lifestyle (characterized by a healthy body mass index, high quality diet, regular exercise, no smoking, and light to moderate alcohol intake) and the risk of developing obesity in offspring. Between maternal lifestyle factors (smoking status, sleep duration, and breakfast consumption during early pregnancy) and childhood obesity (table 2) and overweight (table 3. Maternal smoking during pregnancy protected against malnutrition (or = 056), while children with lower birth weight were at higher risk for malnutrition (or = 423. Objective is to examine the relationship between breastfeeding initiation and duration with child overweight among children and adolescents in north carolina, while controlling for maternal characteristics.
Included studies reported an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of overweight among children at least 2 years of age we did not include in the meta-analysis studies that provided only a continuous measure of adiposity, although those studies are discussed separately. The number of studies examining the relationship between with preterm delivery of pre-pregnancy weight gain and weight gain in pregnancy is limited some studies reported that obesity, overweight or the weight less than normal have increased the risk. In this study we describe the relationship between bmi groups (underweight, overweight, and obesity) compared to healthy weight women for each reproductive factor, and maternal obstetrical and perinatal complication of pregnancy for women delivering in indiana from 2008 to 2010.
The analysis showed no meaningful relation between bmi and prom, between bmi and preterm delivery and between bmi and maternal weight gain with respect to the prior reports  ,  ,  ,  , one can conclude the importance of bmi, nutritional status during pregnancy and weight gain. Maternal prenatal smoking is recognised to result in low birth weight, and this could be the link between maternal prenatal smoking and childhood obesity one longitudinal study 8 found different patterns of weight gain among children born to smokers versus non-smokers. The association between overweight/obesity and liver cancer is stronger in men than women (11, 12) kidney cancer: people who are overweight or obese are nearly twice as likely as normal-weight people to develop renal cell cancer, the most common form of kidney cancer ( 13 . The use of maternal bmi is an advantage because it is a valid proxy for adiposity the correlation between maternal bmi and total body fat is high, especially in early pregnancy38 39 finally, risk estimates were adjusted for maternal smoking and education, indicators of socioeconomic status40. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and child obesity risk although smoking during pregnancy tends to slow the rate of fetal growth, children of women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to be obese than the children of women who don't.
Background: breastfeeding is associated with decreased risk of childhood obesity however, there is a strong correlation between maternal weight status and childhood obesity, and it is unclear whether or not breastfeeding among overweight mothers could mitigate this risk. Finally, oken described one study that suggests the relationship between maternal gestational weight gain and child overweight risk seems to vary within different categories of maternal prepregnancy weight it assumes a j shape among underweight mothers, a u shape among mothers with gestational weight gain less than 45 lbs, and a linear. In 6 studies which adjusted for 3 main confounders related to the parents (parental obesity, maternal smoking, and socioeconomic class), the relationship was minimized substantially but not nullified 76 finally, a recent updated meta-analysis by horta and victora 77 noted only a modest effect on overweight/obesity, in which the prevalence was. Advanced maternal age, smoking, overweight, and obesity were each associated with all the outcomes of the study with the following exceptions: age 30-34 years was not associated with moderately preterm birth, smoking was not associated with low apgar score, and overweight was not associated with sga. Among swedish participants, we observed some evidence of a nmdr relationship between maternal serum pfos concentration and offspring bmi z-scores at 5-year follow-up (p = 009 for non-linearity, fig 2.
Final models were stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese) and adjusted for maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, smoking status, parity, and marital status. The relation between smoking and obesity is incompletely understood on the one hand, nicotine acutely increases energy expenditure (ee) and could reduce appetite, which likely explains why smokers tend to have lower body weight than do nonsmokers and why smoking cessation is frequently followed by weight gain (5, 6. Results both african american and white current smokers had decreased odds of being overweight or obese compared to normal-weight nonsmokers, and the inverse trends between current smoking and bmi held for both groups. There have been several studies that have examined the risk of maternal smoking between different ethnic groups these studies come from the united states [28,40], united kingdom , and new zealand [57. Abstractthe aim of the present study was to find the relationship between pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (bmi) with spontaneous preterm delivery and birth weight.
Next, we conducted a multiple logistic regression analysis to adjust the confounding factors, maternal bmi and maternal age, and to further analyze the significant relationships between the maternal lifestyle factors (smoking habits, sleep duration, and breakfast habits during early pregnancy) and childhood overweight and obesity. To examine associations between maternal smoking and overweight among school-aged children and also identify mothers and offspring characteristics that affect children's weight. The impact of the first associations between maternal tobacco smoking during a lower prevalence of overweight among daughters at age 10. ‡ adjust for family income, schooling at birth, skin colour, maternal age, parity, maternal pre-pregnancy bmi, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during the pregnancy, history of arterial hypertension, history of diabetes mellitus, gestational age, birthweight and sex.
So, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between breast feeding duration, timing of solid food introduction, and development of overweight/obesity among egyptian children, with respect for a wide range of potentially confounding variables. Background we previously reported that a number of factors related to maternal lifestyle during early pregnancy, including smoking, are associated with childhood obesity at 5 years of age.
Among nulliparous women, the risk of late fetal death was roughly doubled among women with a normal body-mass index, as compared with lean women, tripled among those who were overweight, and.